更新: 
2017-05-26
1 CentOS 6支持时程的完整更新已于2016年第2季度结束,维护更新持续到2020-11-30,虽然还有3年多的时间,但请及时升级到CentOS 7。
2 如仍停留在CentOS 6,本教程仍然有效,可安装/升级至最新版的LNMP。

2017-05-25
1 更新至nginx 1.13.0,MariaDB 10.2.6,PHP 7.1.5。

2017-02-25
1 CentOS 7搭建LNMP请参考这篇文章。 

2016-08-19
1 nginx-1.11.3 mainline或nginx-1.10.1, MariaDB 10.1.16, PHP 7.0.9,同样适用。
2 目前centos 6 64位已升至6.8,同样适用。

2016-05-04
1 加入 nginx 的 mainline 和 stable 两个版本供安装选择,标题中总是选择mainline版,详见如下步骤。
2 经测试,该教程适用于nginx-1.9.15 mainline 或者 nginx-1.10.0 stable, MariaDB 10.1.13, PHP 7.0.5,按本教程新装则自动为最新版本;
3 如按本教程安装过老版本,可直接通过如下命令升级即可升级为最新版,无需额外步骤:

     yum update 2016-02-21 1 经测试,同样适用于nginx 1.9.11, PHP 7.0.3, 按本教程新装则自动为最新版本; 2 按本教程安装了nginx 1.9.10 PHP 7.0.2,可直接通过“yum update”命令升级即可,无需额外步骤。
以LNMP(Linux+nginx+MySQL+PHP)来搭建网络环境越来越流行,MariaDB也有逐渐取代MySQL的趋势。
说明:
1 本文以CentOS 6.7 64位系统为基础,安装nginx、MariaDB、PHP来搭建网络环境。
2 尽量采用yum方式,避免出现需要手动编写配置文件的棘手问题。
3 参考教程:
 How To Install Linux, nginx, MySQL, PHP (LEMP) stack on CentOS 6
 Ultimate Guide To Installing Nginx, MySQL, PHP5, PHP-FPM In CentOS 6.5

详细步骤:
1 更新系统是第一件事:

yum update -y

并查看系统版本:

head -1 /etc/issue

CentOS release 6.7 (Final)

2 配置源:
2.1 配置MariaDB官方源
首先需要定制MariaDB的官方源
选择合适的系统,系统版本,及MariaDB版本(最新是10.1)

CentOS > CentOS 6(64bit) > 10.1

从而获得CentOS 6 64位系统MariaDB 10.1版本的源地址,配置源方法

vi /etc/yum.repos.d/MariaDB.repo

填入如下内容

# MariaDB 10.1 CentOS repository list - created 2016-02-03 13:17 UTC
# http://mariadb.org/mariadb/repositories/
[mariadb]
name = MariaDB
baseurl = http://yum.mariadb.org/10.1/centos6-amd64
gpgkey=https://yum.mariadb.org/RPM-GPG-KEY-MariaDB
gpgcheck=1

保存退出(按ESC键,输入:wq)。

2.2 配置PHP源
webtatic源更新较快,且其命名有自己的特色方式,可以避免与其他源的某些冲突:

rpm -Uvh https://mirror.webtatic.com/yum/el6/latest.rpm

2.3 配置nginx官方源
官方nginx有两个版本,mainline和stable,即开发板和稳定版,区别是前者引入新特性但可能有新bug,后者足够稳定。事实上,两者均比较稳定,nginx的网站总是运行在mainline版上。
以下提供两个版本供选择,请选择其一,推荐使用mainline版。

2.3.1 mainline 版
nginx的mainline版

vi /etc/yum.repos.d/nginx.repo

系统是CentOS 6,故写入如下内容

[nginx]
name=nginx repo
baseurl=http://nginx.org/packages/mainline/centos/6/$basearch/
gpgcheck=0
enabled=1

保存退出。

2.3.2 stable 版

vi /etc/yum.repos.d/nginx.repo

系统是CentOS 6,故写入如下内容

[nginx]
name=nginx repo
baseurl=http://nginx.org/packages/centos/6/$basearch/
gpgcheck=0
enabled=1

保存退出。

3 安装、启动服务及设置开机启动

3.1.1 安装MariaDB

yum install MariaDB-server -y

3.1.2 安装PHP

yum install php70w-fpm -y

安装扩展

yum install php70w-gd php70w-mysqlnd php70w-pdo php70w-mcrypt php70w-mbstring php70w-xmlrpc -y

3.1.3 安装nginx

yum install nginx -y

3.2 启动服务并设置开机启动

service nginx start

service mysql start

service php-fpm start

chkconfig --level 235 nginx on

chkconfig --level 235 mysql on

chkconfig --level 235 php-fpm on

4 配置

4.1 设置MariaDB

作为生来就是要接替MySQL的MariaDB,对MySQL的命令具有良好的兼容性。
此步主要是MariaDB的安全设置:

mysql_secure_installation
NOTE: RUNNING ALL PARTS OF THIS SCRIPT IS RECOMMENDED FOR ALL MariaDB
      SERVERS IN PRODUCTION USE!  PLEASE READ EACH STEP CAREFULLY!

In order to log into MariaDB to secure it, we'll need the current
password for the root user.  If you've just installed MariaDB, and
you haven't set the root password yet, the password will be blank,
so you should just press enter here.

Enter current password for root (enter for none): 

因为还未设置MariaDB的数据库,所以root密码也是空的,此处直接回车

Setting the root password ensures that nobody can log into the MariaDB
root user without the proper authorisation.

Set root password? [Y/n] y

设置数据库的密码

New password: 

设置密码,设置一个你自己知道的密码。

Re-enter new password: 

再次输入密码

By default, a MariaDB installation has an anonymous user, allowing anyone
to log into MariaDB without having to have a user account created for
them.  This is intended only for testing, and to make the installation
go a bit smoother.  You should remove them before moving into a
production environment.

Remove anonymous users? [Y/n] y
 ... Success!

Normally, root should only be allowed to connect from 'localhost'.  This
ensures that someone cannot guess at the root password from the network.

Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n] y
 ... Success!

By default, MariaDB comes with a database named 'test' that anyone can
access.  This is also intended only for testing, and should be removed
before moving into a production environment.

Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n] y
 - Dropping test database...
 ... Success!
 - Removing privileges on test database...
 ... Success!

Reloading the privilege tables will ensure that all changes made so far
will take effect immediately.

Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n] y
 ... Success!

Cleaning up...

All done!  If you've completed all of the above steps, your MariaDB
installation should now be secure.

Thanks for using MariaDB!

4.2 配置PHP

vi /etc/php.ini

找到

;cgi.fix_pathinfo=1

去掉注释,并将1改成0

cgi.fix_pathinfo=0

保存退出。

4.3 配置nginx

4.3.1 默认配置的情况下,直接用浏览器打开你的主机空间的IP地址或者域名(假设IP地址为1.2.3.4,域名为www.urwp.com,后面也会用到),就可以看到nginx的欢迎页面,说明nginx已经在工作了。

Welcome to nginx!

If you see this page, the nginx web server is successfully installed and working. Further configuration is required.

For online documentation and support please refer to nginx.org.
Commercial support is available at nginx.com.

Thank you for using nginx.

4.3.2 配置nginx,以支持PHP

vi /etc/nginx/conf.d/default.conf

修改前的默认配置是这样的:

server {
    listen       80;
    server_name  localhost;

    #charset koi8-r;
    #access_log  /var/log/nginx/log/host.access.log  main;

    location / {
        root   /usr/share/nginx/html;
        index  index.html index.htm;
    }

    #error_page  404              /404.html;

    # redirect server error pages to the static page /50x.html
    #
    error_page   500 502 503 504  /50x.html;
    location = /50x.html {
        root   /usr/share/nginx/html;
    }

    # proxy the PHP scripts to Apache listening on 127.0.0.1:80
    #
    #location ~ \.php$ {
    #    proxy_pass   http://127.0.0.1;
    #}

    # pass the PHP scripts to FastCGI server listening on 127.0.0.1:9000
    #
    #location ~ \.php$ {
    #    root           html;
    #    fastcgi_pass   127.0.0.1:9000;
    #    fastcgi_index  index.php;
    #    fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME  /scripts$fastcgi_script_name;
    #    include        fastcgi_params;
    #}

    # deny access to .htaccess files, if Apache's document root
    # concurs with nginx's one
    #
    #location ~ /\.ht {
    #    deny  all;
    #}
}

按下面内容修改,取消注释,并修改部分内容:

    # pass the PHP scripts to FastCGI server listening on 127.0.0.1:9000
    #
    location ~ \.php$ {
        root           /usr/share/nginx/html;
        fastcgi_pass   127.0.0.1:9000;
        fastcgi_index  index.php;
        fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME  $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
        include        fastcgi_params;
    }

4.3.3 测试PHP是否正常运行

vi /usr/share/nginx/html/phpinfo.php

写入如下代码,并保存

<?php
phpinfo();
?>

重启nginx和PHP

service nginx restart
service php-fpm restart

再次访问你的主机地址或域名:

http://1.2.3.4/phpinfo.php

或者

http://www.urwp.com/phpinfo.php

可见到php相关信息,说明PHP和nginx已经配合工作了。
此时LNMP网络服务环境就已初步搭建了。
接下来,可以部署自己的网站,或者开个简单的博客,比如WordPress
下一篇:CentOS 6系统LNMP环境下安装WordPress


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